Periodontics is the medical-surgical specialty of dentistry that treats the diseases that affect the dental support (gum and bone), the so-called gingivitis and periodontitis, the latter formerly called pyorrhoea colloquially.


Periodontal diseases are…

As we mentioned, Gingivitis and Periodontitis are oral diseases.

The first thing that our patients must assimilate is that as such, they must be treated to eradicate the acute phase and to prevent them from recurring in the short and/or medium term.

They are diseases caused by bacteria that accumulate in the gingival sulcus, space located between the gum and the tooth, initiating an inflammation of the gum, called gingivitis. Gingivitis is treatable and in almost 100% of cases reversible.

When the gingivitis is not treated and it gets to advance in depth, the bacteria are getting stronger and stronger, and strains of resistant bacteria are created in a climate without oxygen, being increasingly destructive and potentially more dangerous for the destruction of the dental support , reaching to affect the bone, passing then to be called periodontitis.

Thus, in many cases gingivitis without treatment evolve to periodontitis.

Is periodontitis curable?

Periodontitis is also treatable, but unlike gingivitis, the damage caused is irreversible. Thus, the bone resorption produced at bone level is unrecoverable. We can stabilize the disease to stop it and the damage is the least possible, that is why it is so important that personalized protocols are established according to the stage and severity of each patient.


The gingivitis evolves to periodontitis when…

Normally patients suffering from gingivitis are identified at an early stage that can be reversed and completely controlled. They are those patients who regularly visit dental check-ups and who follow the guidelines of prophylaxis in the dental office in order to eradicate this inflammation.

Unfortunately there is a fairly high percentage of patients who suffer from a genetic predisposition to suffer periodontal diseases, which together with other factors such as poor hygiene, alcohol intake, certain medications, tobacco and/or stress, as well as dental malpositions that do not help hygiene daily, it can cause gingivitis to get out of control.

If in addition to these factors we add that not always meets the frequency of controls and recommended cleaning guidelines in the dental clinic, gingivitis will evolve in the medium-long term to a periodontitis that can become severe.

Why are not all teeth affected equally?

There are different types of periodontitis, there are classifications according to the age of the patient and the affected dental groups.

Thus there will be patients who have never suffered gum involvement and from the age of 35 have an outbreak of this disease or adolescents who due to nervous or hormonal causes have very acute phases of gingivitis difficult to control.

Depending on the type of involvement, it may be that only the molar sectors or incisors of the previous group are affected. Each case must be assessed individually.


The diagnosis is established thanks to…

The most important thing is to establish a reliable diagnosis in order to establish a good treatment plan:

  • Genetic analysis: To assess predisposition to suffer from these periodontal diseases.
  • Microbiological analysis: Study of the quality and quantity of bacteria present in the oral cavity that will help us to guide antibiotic treatment in a specific way.
  • Periodontogram: The periodontist measures the depth of the spaces between the tooth and gum with a periodontal probe millimetrated by performing a study called “Periodontogram” with which the current state of the gums and bone of the patient is recorded and with which it will be possible to check in later reviews the evolution of periodontal disease.
  • Radiologic tests: The Orthopantomography will give us a general information of the bone loss suffered in the whole mouth and with the Serial Periapical, which is a series of small detailed radiographs of 2 or 3 teeth per radiographic plate, we will be able to store the necessary information to establish the degree of affectation of the disease.

The periodontal treatment consists of…

  • Hygienic phase: In this first phase of the periodontal treatment, the spaces between tooth and gum will be cleaned with a Scraping, Smoothing and Polishing of the root surfaces (RAP). This phase is known by patients as “Curettages”, since it uses instruments called curettes.
  • Surgical phase: In this second phase, which is not always necessary, deep periodontal pockets will be treated when dealing with periodontitis in which severe bone destruction has already occurred.
  • Phase of maintenance: They are maintenance treatments that allow to control the disease in the long term. The frequency of these treatments is evaluated individually for each patient, but we usually do it every 4 or 6 months.


Importance of reviews and maintenance

Once the patients understand the origin of these oral affectations, they begin to become aware of the importance of the controls after the first phase of the treatment.


What can happen if we do not treat the gums?

The consequences of not treating the gingivitis and periodontitis can group in local or general:

  • At local level we can suffer: loss of teeth in our oral cavity, which implies a direct effect on the aesthetic and masticatory function that translates into insecurity and patient dissatisfaction at the social level and bad digestion due to masticatory insufficiency.

In addition to this, patients who suffer from these untreated diseases often suffer from bad breath, gingival retraction (with the consequent visual exposure of the dental roots), mobility of the teeth, as well as bleeding and discomfort in the gums. At a systemic level, the presence and persistence of bacteria in the gums can cause these bacteria to enter the blood system of our body and can nest in other places of our body reando infectious foci with great repercussion as they are at the cardiovascular level, risk of premature birth, decompensate diabetes, etc.


Do you suspect that your gums are not right?

If you bleed spontaneously or with brushing, if you have a bad taste or bad mouth odor is that your gums are not good.

If in addition there is redness and recession of gum, sensitivity, note that the teeth have changed position and even move, are symptoms for you to come and visit us.

At Clínica Lázaro, we will assess your periodontal health and plan the most appropriate treatment.

Contact us to make a first visit and be able to assess your case.


Are gum diseases contagious?

Gum diseases are caused by pathogenic bacteria.

Although for now it is not possible to demonstrate that periodontal disease is contagious, bacteria seem to be transmissible between humans, but despite the frequency of contact through saliva (kisses, use same spoons, glasses, etc.) the number of microorganisms transmitted is low.

At Lázaro clinic, we believe that in order for pathogenic microorganisms to grow and outnumber the non-pathogenic bacteria of the habitual resident microflora of our oral cavity, an important environmental change must take place to favor this event, such as situations of poor oral hygiene conditions. , increased smoking or eating disorders that can occur in some cases.


There is evidence of transmission between relatives of pathogens or periodontal bacteria. There are 2 types:

  • Vertical transmission: from parents to children.
  • Horizontal transmission: from husband to wife and/or vice versa.


It is remarkable to note that for this transmission to occur, there must be frequency of contacts through saliva (especially kisses) this occurs with stable couples (not sporadic) and family.

At Lázaro clinic, we carry out a diagnostic protocol in which, through microbiological analysis tests, we assess whether there has been horizontal and/or vertical transmission between family members.

We also do genetic tests (interleukin gene) to assess the genetic predisposition to suffer from gum diseases within the family environment.